Topics Reference to science

Constitute topics are built from the variables in the Comparative Constitutions Project’s dataset, which captures the content of world constitutions. The particular variables relevant to this topic are listed below, in the form of survey questions.

More information about the CCP’s research design is available here, including background information on how the team designed the inventory of constitutional topics as well as the full coding survey


Reference to science, which may include prioritization of investment in scientific research, or mandate state support for science and innovation.


Principles and Symbols

Survey Questions

  • Does the constitution refer to science or the sciences?