Topics Referenda

Constitute topics are built from the variables in the Comparative Constitutions Project’s dataset, which captures the content of world constitutions. The particular variables relevant to this topic are listed below, in the form of survey questions.

More information about the CCP’s research design is available here, including background information on how the team designed the inventory of constitutional topics as well as the full coding survey


Provides citizens an opportunity to vote for or against a specific piece of proposed legislation. Referenda are proposed by one or more bodies of the government.





Survey Questions

  • Does the constitution provide for the ability to propose a referendum (or plebiscite)?
  • Who can propose a referendum?
  • What is required to place a referendum on the ballot?