Topics Freedom of opinion/thought/conscience

Constitute topics are built from the variables in the Comparative Constitutions Project’s dataset, which captures the content of world constitutions. The particular variables relevant to this topic are listed below, in the form of survey questions.

More information about the CCP’s research design is available here, including background information on how the team designed the inventory of constitutional topics as well as the full coding survey


Grants individuals the right to believe or think anything they find compelling. This does not necessarily mean that they have a right to express these beliefs.


Rights and Duties


church; religion; secular

Survey Questions

  • Does the constitution provide for freedom of opinion, thought, and/or conscience?