Topics First chamber representation quotas

Constitute topics are built from the variables in the Comparative Constitutions Project’s dataset, which captures the content of world constitutions. The particular variables relevant to this topic are listed below, in the form of survey questions.

More information about the CCP’s research design is available here, including background information on how the team designed the inventory of constitutional topics as well as the full coding survey


Specifies the proportion of the seats in the first chamber that must be assigned to representatives of a particular group, such as women, ethnic groups, political parties, religious groups, or social classes.




gender; minority; women's rights

Survey Questions

  • Does the constitution stipulate a quota for representation of certain groups in the first (or only) chamber?
  • Which groups does the constitution stipulate a quota for in the first (or only) chamber of the legislature?