Topics Budget bills

Constitute topics are built from the variables in the Comparative Constitutions Project’s dataset, which captures the content of world constitutions. The particular variables relevant to this topic are listed below, in the form of survey questions.

More information about the CCP’s research design is available here, including background information on how the team designed the inventory of constitutional topics as well as the full coding survey


Special legislative processes for budget bills, which may include restrictions on proposal, approval, or amendment. Budget bills refer to legislation that lays out the revenues and expenditures for some period of time, usually in years.




fiscal policy

Survey Questions

  • Who initiates budget bills?
  • Who approves budget bills?
  • Are there any special limits placed on amendments to budget bills?
  • What is the default budget if a new budget is not passed by the end of the previous fiscal year?
  • Does the constitution specify that the budget must be balanced?
  • What are the details for the process to pass budget bills?