Type of government envisioned, Right to culture
Honduras is a State of law, sovereign, constituted as a free, democratic and independent republic to ensure its inhabitants the enjoyment of justice, liberty, culture, and social and economic well-being.
Sovereignty originates in the people, from which stem all the powers of the State, which are exercised through representation.
The supplanting of popular sovereignty and the usurping of their constituted power shall be considered crimes of treason against the fatherland. Responsibility in these cases is imprescriptible and an action may be initiated by the competent organ in its own motion or by petition of any citizen.
Right to overthrow government
No one owes obedience to a usurping government nor to those who assume office or public service by force of arms or by using means or procedures which violate or ignore the provisions established by this Constitution and other laws. The acts adopted by such authorities are null. The people have the right to resort to insurrection in defense of the constitutional order.
Claim of executive independence, Judicial independence
Type of government envisioned
The form of government is republican, democratic and representative. It is exercised by three branches: Legislative, Executive and Judicial, which are complementary, independent, and not subordinate to one another.
Alternation in the exercise of the Presidency of the Republic is obligatory.
Violation of this rule constitutes a crime of treason against the nation.
Electoral court powers, Referenda
Right to self determination
The government of the Republic must be founded on the principles of popular sovereignty, the self-determination of the people, and participatory democracy, from which stems the national integration, which implies participation by all political sectors in the Public Administration, in order to ensure and strengthen the process of Honduras, political stability and social peace.
Legislative initiatives by citizens
In order to strengthen representative democracy, the referendum, the plebiscite, and the citizen initiative of law are instituted as mechanisms of citizen participation.
The referendum shall be convoked over an ordinary law or a constitutional norm or its approved reform for its ratification or rejection by the citizenry.
The plebiscite shall be convoked asking for a pronouncement from the people on constitutional, legislative, or administrative aspects over which the Constitutional Powers have never made a previous decision.
The referendum and the plebiscite may be recognized at a national, regional, sub-regional, departmental, and municipal level.
The following have the power to ask for a referendum or plebiscite:
- At least two per cent (2%) of the citizens registered in the National Electoral Census, in accordance with the data that should be provided periodically by the Supreme Electoral Tribunal to the National Congress.
- At least ten representatives of the National Congress, and
- The President of the Republic in resolution of the Council of Secretaries of State.
The National Congress shall come to know and discuss such petitions, and if they approve them, shall emit a Decree that determines the bounds of the consultation, ordering the Supreme Elections Tribunal to convoke, organize, and direct the consultation to the citizens.
The percentages of legislative approval of the citizen consultations are determined following the topic to be consulted on in accordance with this constitution, by simple majority of the totality of its members when it is about ordinary laws and matters, and two thirds of the totality of its members when it is about constitutional matters.
A Special Law approved by two thirds of the totality of the Representatives of the National Congress shall determine the procedures, requirements, and other necessary aspects for the exercise of the mechanisms of citizen participation.
It is uniquely the duty of the Supreme Elections Tribunal to convoke, organize, and direct the citizen consultations.
The citizen consultations should be made preferably on the same dates as general elections.
The exercise of suffrage in the citizen consultations is obligatory.
The result of the citizen consultations must be fulfilled if there is at least fifty-one percent (51%) of the total of participation in the last general election and if the affirmative vote achieves the majority of the valid votes.
The Special Law shall determine who has the initiative to ask for the convocation of a citizen consultation when it is not at the national level, as well as the percentage of participation necessary to be valid.
Once the official result is known in the term indicated by the Special Law, the Supreme Elections Tribunal shall inform the National Congress within a period of ten days about the result of the consultation. The National Congress shall issue a decree ordering those opposed to comply with the rules that result from the citizen consultation.
If the initiative submitted for consultation is approved, the approval of the Executive branch shall not be necessary, nor shall it proceed for its veto, consequently, the National Congress shall order the publication of the approved rules. These same rules may only be rejected or reformed through the same process of their approval.
Consultation on the same subjects may not be realized in the same nor the following period of Government.
Official or national languages
The official language of Honduras is Spanish. The State shall protect its purity and increase its learning.
National flag, National anthem
The national symbols are: the Flag, the Coat of Arms, and the National Anthem.
The law shall establish their characteristics and shall regulate their use.
The cities of Tegucigalpa and Comayaguela, jointly, constitute the capital of the Republic.