Topics Leader of first chamber

Constitute topics are built from the variables in the Comparative Constitutions Project’s dataset, which captures the content of world constitutions. The particular variables relevant to this topic are listed below, in the form of survey questions.

More information about the CCP’s research design is available here, including background information on how the team designed the inventory of constitutional topics as well as the full coding survey


Names the office that presides over the first chamber of the legislature. This function might be fulfilled by the head of government, a member of the chamber, the deputy executive, or another official.



Survey Questions

  • Who presides over the first (or only) chamber?