Name/structure of executive(s)
The President of the Republic is the Head of the State.
He incarnates national unity.
The President of the Republic is above the political parties.
He is the guarantor of the national independence, of the national unity, of the integrity of the territory, of respect for the Constitution, and for the international treaties and agreements. He assures the regular functioning of the public powers and the continuity of the State.
Head of state selection
Head of state term limits, Claim of universal suffrage, Secret ballot, Head of state term length
The President of the Republic is elected by universal, free, direct, equal and secret suffrage for a mandate of five (5) years, renewable one (1) sole time.
Head of state term limits
In any case, no one may exercise more than two (2) presidential mandates or extend the mandate for any reason whatsoever.
Eligibility for head of state, Minimum age of head of state
Nigeriens of the two (2) sexes, of Nigerien nationality of origin, at least thirty-five (35) years old the day the dossier is deposited, enjoying their civil and political rights, are eligible to the Presidency of the Republic.
Eligibility for head of state
No one is eligible to the Presidency of the Republic if he does not enjoy a good state of physical and mental health, as well as of a good morality attested by the competent services.
Eligibility for head of state
The law specifies the conditions of eligibility, of the presentation of the candidatures, of development of the ballot, of counting and of proclamation of the results.
The Constitutional Court controls the regularity of these operations and proclaims the definitive results.
Head of state selection
The election of the President of the Republic takes place by majority ballot in two (2) rounds.
The convocation of the electors is made by decree taken in the Council of Ministers.
Scheduling of elections
The first round of the ballot with a view to the election of the President of the Republic takes place thirty (30) days, at least, and forty (40) days, at most, before the expiration of the mandate of the President in office.
The candidate who obtains the absolute majority of the expressed suffrage in the first round is declared elected.
If this condition is not met, it proceeds, no later than twenty-one (21) days after, to a second round of the ballot in which the two (2) candidates that arrived ahead in the first round take part.
In the case of death, withdrawal or incapacity of one or the other of the two candidates, the candidates following present themselves in the order of their ranking after the first round.
No withdrawal may be taken into consideration seventy-two (72) hours after the proclamation of the definitive results of the first round by the Constitutional Court.
In the case of death of the two (2) candidates, the electoral operations of the first round are retaken.
After the second round, the candidate who obtained the greatest number of votes is declared elected.
The mandate of the new President of the Republic takes effect counting from the date of expiration of the mandate of his predecessor.
God or other deities, Oaths to abide by constitution
Before entering into his functions, the President of the Republic takes an oath on the Holy Book of his confession before the Constitutional Court, in the presence of the members of the National Assembly, in these terms:
"Before God and before the sovereign Nigerien People, We ..., President the Republic, elected according to the laws, solemnly swear on the Holy Book:
- to respect and to have respected the Constitution that the People have freely given to themselves;
to loyally fulfill the high functions with which we have been invested;
to never betray or to misrepresent the aspirations of the People;
to respect and to defend the republican form of the State;
to preserve the integrity of the territory and the unity of the Nation;
to respect and to defend the rights and freedoms of the citizens;
not to take or to be guaranty for any measures degrading the human dignity;
to see to the neutrality of the administration and to the respect for the texts that establish its depolitization;
to work tirelessly for the happiness of the People;
to spare no effort for the realization of African Unity;
to conduct ourselves in all things as faithful and loyal servant of the People;
In the case of perjury, may we suffer the rigors of the law.
The oath is received by the Constitutional Court.
After the ceremony of investiture and within a time period of forty-eight (48) hours, the President of the Constitutional Court receives the declaration, written on the honor, of the assets of the President of the Republic.
This declaration is subject to an annual updating and one at the cessation of the functions. The initial declaration and the updates are published in the Journal Officiel and by the way of the press.
A copy of the declaration of the President of the Republic is communicated to the Court of Accounts and to the tax services.
The gaps between the initial declaration and the annual updates must be duly justified. The Constitutional Court has all powers of evaluation in this domain.
The Court of Accounts is also charged with controlling the declaration of assets as received by the Constitutional Court.
During his mandate, the President of the Republic may not, either by himself or by others, purchase or lease anything that belongs to the domain of the State or to its separated parts.
He may not take part, either by himself or by others, in the public and private markets of the State and of its separated parts.
The provisions of this Article are extended to the Presidents of the Institutions of the Republic, to the Prime Minister, to the members of the Government and to the Deputies.
Head of state removal, Head of state replacement
In the case of vacancy of the Presidency of the Republic by death, resignation, forfeiture or absolute impediment, the functions of President of the Republic are provisionally exercised by the President of the National Assembly and, if this last one is incapacitated, by the Vice-Presidents of the National Assembly in the order of precedence.
The physical or mental incapacity of the President of the Republic rendering him unfit to exercise the responsibilities of his function, is considered absolute impediment.
The refusal of the President of the Republic to obey an order of the Constitutional Court that declares a violation by him of the provisions of this Constitution is liable to the same consequences as the absolute impediment.
The absolute impediment is declared by the Constitutional Court, referred to the matter by the National Assembly, deciding by a majority of two-thirds (2/3) of its members.
In the case of death, the vacancy is declared by the Constitutional Court, referred to the matter by the Prime Minister or by a member of the Government.
In the case of resignation, the vacancy is declared by the Constitutional Court, referred to the matter by the resigning President of the Republic.
It then proceeds to new presidential elections forty-five (45) days, at least, and ninety (90) days, at most, after the opening of the vacancy.
When the President of the National Assembly assures the interim of the President of the Republic in the conditions enounced in the paragraphs above, he may not, except by resignation on his part or renouncement of the interim, stand as a candidate in the presidential elections. He exercises the attributions vested in the President of the Republic, with the exception of those specified in Articles 59, 60 and 61.
In the case of resignation of the President of the National Assembly or of renunciation of the interim on his part, the interim of the President of the Republic is assured by the Vice-Presidents of the National Assembly, in the order of precedence.
In the case of impeachment of the President of the Republic before the High Court of Justice, his interim is assured by the President of the Constitutional Court who exercises all the functions of President of the Republic, with the exception of those mentioned in Article 59 and in paragraph 8 of this Article. He may not stand as a candidate in the presidential elections.
In the case of serious illness duly declared by a college of three (3) doctors appointed by the Bureau of the National Assembly on the proposal of the Order of Doctors, the Constitutional Court, referred to the matter by two-thirds (2/3) of the members of the National Assembly, declares the absolutely impediment of the President of the Republic and pronounces the vacancy.
Restrictions on the armed forces
Outside professions of legislators
The functions of President of the Republic are incompatible with the exercise of any other elective mandate, of any military, civil or public employment and of any other professional activity.
For the duration of his mandate, the President of the Republic may not be president or member of the directive organ of a political party or any national association.
Cabinet removal, Cabinet selection
Head of government selection, Head of government removal
The President of the Republic appoints the Prime Minister and terminates his functions.
On a proposal of the Prime Minister, he appoints the other members of the Government and terminates their functions.
Head of government powers
In the case of absence from the territory, of sickness or of vacation of the President of the Republic, his interim is assured by the Prime Minister within the limits of the powers that he would have delegated to him.
Establishment of cabinet/ministers
Head of state powers
The President of the Republic is the President of the Council of Ministers. He convokes and presides over the Council of Ministers.
The Prime Minister substitutes him in the presidency of the Council of Ministers within the conditions enunciated in this Constitution.
The agenda of the Council is established by mutual agreement between the President of the Republic and the Prime Minister.
Veto override procedure, Approval or veto of general legislation
The President of the Republic promulgates the laws within the fifteen (15) days that follow the transmission made to him by the President of the National Assembly.
This time period is reduced to five (5) days in the case of urgency declared by the National Assembly.
The President of the Republic may, before the expiration of these time periods, address a motivated demand to the National Assembly for a second deliberation of the law or of certain of its Articles. This deliberation may not be refused.
If after a second reading, the National Assembly votes the text by an absolute majority of its members, the law is promulgated of plain right and published according to the procedure of urgency.
Dismissal of the legislature
The President of the Republic can, after consultation of the President of the National Assembly and of the Prime Minister, pronounce the dissolution of the National Assembly.
A new Assembly is elected forty-five (45) days at least and ninety (90) days at most after this dissolution.
A new dissolution may not proceed within the twenty-four (24) months following the elections.
After the expiration of the time period established in the preceding paragraph, if the legislative elections are not organized, the dissolved National Assembly is rehabilitated of plain right.
The President of the Republic may, after the opinion of the National Assembly and of the President of the Constitutional Court, submit to referendum any text which appears to him to demand the direct consultation of the people with the exception of any revision of this Constitution which remains governed by the procedure specified in Title XII.
At the demand of the President of the Republic, the Constitutional Court decides by an order on the constitutionality of the initiative of the recourse to the referendum.
When the bill is adopted by referendum, the President of the Republic promulgates it within the time periods specified in paragraphs 1 and 2 of Article 58.
Head of state powers, Foreign affairs representative
The President of the Republic accredits the ambassadors and the extraordinary envoys to foreign powers. The ambassadors and extraordinary envoys of foreign powers are accredited to him.
The President of the Republic is the Head of the Administration. He sees to the neutrality of the administration and to the respect for the texts that consecrate its depolitization.
Designation of commander in chief, Advisory bodies to the head of state
The President of the Republic is the Supreme Head of the Armies.
He is assisted by the Superior Council of National Defense and by the National Council of Security.
Advisory bodies to the head of state, Selection of active-duty commanders
The Superior Council of National Defense gives its opinion on the appointment to high military functions and on the promotion to the ranks of general officers, and on any other question of the military domain to which it is referred.
A law determines the composition, the attributions and the functioning of the Superior Council of National Defense.
Advisory bodies to the head of state
The National Council of Security gives its opinion on matters related to the security of the Nation, to the defense of the Nation, to the foreign policy and, in a general manner, on all matters related to the strategic and vital interests of the country.
A law determines the composition, the attributions and the functioning of the National Council of Security.
The Nigerien armed forces [Forces Armée Nigériennes (FAN)] assure the defense of the integrity of the national territory against all external aggression and participate, by the side of the other forces, in the preservation of peace and security, in accordance with the laws and regulations in force.
They participate in the work of economic and social development of the Nation and may exercise the responsibilities corresponding to their competences and qualifications.
Constitutional court powers, International law
When the institutions of the Republic, the independence of the Nation, the integrity of the national territory or the execution of the international engagements are menaced in a grave and immediate manner, and the regular functioning of the public constitutional powers is interrupted, the President of the Republic takes the exceptional measures demanded by these circumstances after official consultation of the Prime Minister, of the President of the National Assembly and of the President of the Constitutional Court.
He informs the Nation by a message. The National Assembly meets of plain right if it is not in session.
No institution of the Republic may be dissolved or suspended during the exercise of the exceptional powers.
The exceptional measures must be inspired by the will to assure to the constitutional public powers, within the shortest time periods, the means to accomplish their mission.
The National Assembly approves with an absolute majority of its members the duration of the exercise of the emergency powers and terminates them in the case of abuse.
The President of the Republic, after deliberation of the Council of Ministers, proclaims the State of Emergency within the conditions determined by the law.
Advisory bodies to the head of state
A Council of the Republic is instituted in view of preventing and resolving the institutional and political crises, in a consensual manner, within the respect for this Constitution.
The Council of the Republic gives its opinion on the matters that it is referred to. These opinions are brought to the knowledge of the Nation, under reserve for the defense secrets. It meets under the presidency of the President of the Republic.
The Council of the Republic is constituted by:
- the President of the Republic;
the President of the National Assembly;
the former Presidents of the Republic and former Heads of State;
and by the Leader of the opposition.
The law determines the attributions and the functioning of the Council of the Republic.
Head of state powers, Head of government decree power, Selection of active-duty commanders
The President of the Republic signs the ordinances and decrees deliberated in the Council of Ministers.
He appoints, by decree taken in the Council of Ministers, to the civil and military employments of the State.
The law determines the functions that he would be provided by decree taken in the Council of Ministers.
The law establishes the advantages granted to the President of the Republic and organizes the modalities for granting a pension to former Presidents of the Republic and Heads of State.
Power to pardon
The President of the Republic has the right of pardon. This pardon may not be granted in the cases of imprescriptible crimes.