The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is a democratic, free, independent and indivisible State.
English Translation © 2012 by William S. Hein & Co., Inc. All rights reserved.
Translated by Jefri J. Ruchti
The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is a democratic, free, independent and indivisible State.
The boundaries and chief towns of the judicial or administrative districts, of the cantons and of the communes may only be changed by virtue of a law.
The Crown of the Grand Duchy is hereditary within the family of Nassau conforming to the Pact of 30 June 1783, to Article 71 of the Treaty of Vienna of 9 June 1815, and to Article 1 of the Treaty of London of 11 May 1867.
The person of the grand Duke is inviolable.
If on the death of the Grand Duke, His successor is a minor, the regency is exercised conforming to the Family Pact.
If the Grand Duke finds it impossible to reign, the regency is provided for as in the case of minority.
In the case of vacancy of the throne, the Chamber provides for the regency provisionally. A new Chamber, convoked with the double numbers within thirty days, provides for the vacancy definitely.
When he enters into his functions, the Regent takes the following oath:
"I swear fidelity to the Grand Duke. I swear to observe the Constitution and the laws of the country."
The status of Luxembourger is acquired, retained and lost in accordance with the rules determined by civil law.
This Constitution and other laws concerning political rights determine those which are, beyond this quality, conditions necessary for the exercise of these rights.
By derogation of the preceding paragraph, the law can confer the exercise of political rights on non-Luxembourgers.
In matters of exercise of the liberal professions, the power to make regulations may be granted to professional organs endowed with civil personality.
The law can submit these regulations to procedures of adoption, amendment or suspension without prejudice to the attributions of judicial or administrative tribunals.
The State guarantees the protection of the human and cultural environment, and works for the establishment of a durable equilibrium between the conservation of nature, in particular its capacity for renewal, and the satisfaction of the needs of present and future generations.
Individual freedom is guaranteed. No one may be prosecuted except in the cases specified by the law and in the form which it prescribes. No one may be arrested or detained [plac] except in the cases specified by the law and in the form which it prescribes. Except in the case of flagrante delicto, no one may be arrested except by virtue of a substantiated order of a judge, which must be served, at the moment of the arrest, or at the latest within twenty-four hours. Every person must be informed without delay of the means of legal recourse [they] have at [their] disposal to recover their freedom.
No one may be deprived against his will of the judge that the law assigns to him.
No penalty may be established or applied except by virtue of the law.
The domicile is inviolable. An intrusion can only be made in the cases specified by the law and in the forms that it prescribes.
One may only be deprived of his property for a reason of public utility and [with] consideration [of a] just indemnity, in the case and in the manner established by the law.
The penalty of the confiscation of property may not be established.
The death penalty may not be established.
The freedom of religions, that of their public exercise, as well as the freedom to manifest religious opinions, are guaranteed, save for the repression of crimes committed on the occasion of the practice of these freedoms.
No one may be forced to take part in any manner whatsoever in the acts and ceremonies of a religion or to observe its days of rest.
Civil marriage must always precede the nuptial benediction.
The intervention of the State in the nomination and the installation of the leaders of religions, the mode of nomination and dismissal of other ministers of religions, the faculty of the former or the latter corresponding to their superiors and of the publication of their acts, as well as the relation between the Church and the State, are subject to conventions submitted to the Chamber of Deputies for the provisions which necessitate its intervention.
The State sees to the organization of primary education, which will be obligatory and free and to which access must be guaranteed to every person inhabiting the Grand Duchy. Medical and social assistance is regulated by the law.
It creates establishments of free secondary instruction and the necessary courses of higher education.
The law determines the means of supporting public instruction as well as the conditions of supervision by the Government and the communes; it regulates additionally all [matters] concerning education and provides, according to the criteria that it determines, a system of financial aid in favor of pupils and students.
Anyone is free to study in the Grand Duchy or abroad and to attend the universities of his choice, subject to the provisions of the law on the conditions of admission to employment [in], and to the exercise of[,] certain professions.
The freedom to manifest one's opinion by speech in all matters, and the freedom of the press are guaranteed, save the repression of offenses committed on the occasion of the exercise of these freedoms. - Censorship may never be established.
The Constitution guarantees the right to assemble peacefully and unarmed in compliance with the laws that govern the exercise of this right, without having to be submitted to a prior authorization. - This provision is not applicable to open-air political, religious or other meetings; these meetings remain entirely submitted to the laws and regulations of [the] police.
The Constitution guarantees the right of association, in compliance with the laws that govern the exercise of this right without having to be submitted to a prior authorization.
Everyone has the right to address to the public authorities, petitions signed by one or more persons. - The constituted authorities alone have the right to address petitions collectively.
The secrecy of correspondence is inviolable. The law determines those agents responsible for the violation of the secrecy of correspondence entrusted to the postal [services].
The law regulates the guarantee to be given to the secrecy of telegrams.
The law regulates the use of languages in administrative and judicial matters.
No prior authorization is required to exercise proceedings against public functionaries, for faults in their administration, save that which is established in this regard [concerning] the members of the Government.
The public functionaries, to whatever order they belong, the members of the Government excepted, may only be deprived of their functions, honors and pensions in the manner determined by the law.
The Grand Duke exercises it conforming to this Constitution and to the laws of the country.
The political parties participate in the formation of the popular will and in the expression of universal suffrage. They espouse [exprimer] pluralist democracy.
The Grand Duke is the Head of State, symbol of its unity and guarantor of the national independence. He exercises the executive power conforming to the Constitution and to the laws of the country.
The Grand Duke promulgates the laws within three months of the vote of the Chamber.
The Grand Duke appoints to civil and military posts in conformity to the law, and save the exceptions made by it.
A salaried function can only be created by the State by virtue of a legislative provision.
The Grand Duke makes the regulations and decisions necessary for the execution of the laws.
The Grand Duke makes the treaties. The treaties will not have effect before having been approved by the law and published in the forms specified for the publication of the laws.
The treaties referred to in Chapter III, § 4 [and] Article 49bis, are approved by a law voted under the conditions of Article 114, paragraph 2.
Secret treaties are abolished.
The Grand Duke makes the regulations and orders necessary for the execution of the treaties in the forms which regulate the measures of execution of the laws and with the effects which are attached to these measures, without prejudice to the matters which are reserved by the Constitution to the law.
Cession, exchange [or] to addition of territory can only take place by virtue of a law.
The Grand Duke commands the armed force; he declares war and the cessation of war after having been so authorized by a vote of the Chamber taken under the conditions of Article 114, paragraph 2 of the Constitution.
The Grand Duke has the right to remit or reduce the penalties pronounced by the judges, save that which is established concerning the members of the Government.
The Grand Duke has the right to mint money in execution of the law.
The Grand Duke has the right to confer titles of nobility without ever [having] power to attach any privilege to them.
The Grand Duke confers civil and military orders[,] observing in this regard that which the law provides.
The Grand Duke may have Himself represented by a Prince of the blood, who shall bear the title of Lieutenant of the Grand Duke and who [shall] reside in the Grand Duchy.
This representative shall take an oath to observe the Constitution before exercising his powers.
The civil list is fixed at three hundred thousand gold francs per year.
It may be changed by the law at the commencement of each reign. The budgetary law may allocate each year to the Sovereign House the sums necessary to cover the expenses of representation.
The Grand Ducal Palace and the Chateau of Berg are reserved for the residence of the Grand Duke.
All provisions of the Grand Duke must be countersigned by a member of the Government.
The assent of the Chamber of Deputies is required for each law.
The Grand Duke addresses to the Chamber the proposals or bills of law he wishes to submit to adoption.
The Chamber has the right to propose bills of law to the Grand Duke.
The interpretation of the laws by way of authority may on take place by the law.
Justice is rendered in the name of the Grand Duke by the courts and the tribunals.
The orders and judgments are executed in the name of the Grand Duke.
The exercise of the attributions reserved by the Constitution to the legislative, executive and judicial powers may be temporarily vested by treaty in institutions of international law.
The Chamber of Deputies represents the country. The Deputies vote without referring to their constituents and may only have in view the general interest of the Grand Duchy.
the Centre with the Cantons of Luxembourg and Mersch;
the North with the Cantons of Diekirch, Redange, Wiltz, Clervaux and Vianden;
the East with the Cantons of Grevenmacher, Remich and Echternach.
To be an elector, it is necessary:
To these three qualities shall be added those determined by the law. No tax condition may be required.
To be eligible, it is necessary:
No other condition of eligibility may be imposed.
[The following] may neither be electors nor eligible:
No other case of exclusion may be specified.
The right to vote may be restored by the way of pardon to the persons who have lost it by penal sentence.
This will be the same for the substitute Deputy who, called to the function of [a] member of the Government, renounces the mandate of Deputy devolving to him in the duration of these functions.
In the event of a dispute between several [persons] having the right, reinstatement shall be made in order of votes obtained at the elections.
The incompatibilities specified in the preceding article are not an impediment to the others which the law establishes in the future.
The Deputies are elected for five years.
"I swear fidelity to the Grand Duke, obedience to the Constitution and the laws of the State."
The Deputy, appointed by the Government to a salaried post which he accepts, ceases immediately to sit and resumes his functions only by virtue of a new election.
All the laws are submitted to a second vote, unless the Chamber, in agreement with the Council of State, in a public sitting decides otherwise. - There shall be an interval of at least three months between the two votes.
At each session, the Chamber appoints its President and its Vice Presidents and composes its Bureau.
The sittings of the Chamber are public, save the exceptions determined by its regulations.
Every resolution is taken with the absolute majority of votes. In case the votes are equally divided, the measure under deliberation is rejected.
The Chamber may only take a resolution when the majority of its members are present.
The Chamber has the right of inquiry. The law regulates exercise of this right.
The Chamber votes on the whole of a law. The vote always takes place by roll call.
At the demand of five Deputies at least, the vote on the whole of a law may proceed by a vote concerning one or more articles of a law.
Vote by proxy is admitted. However no one may receive more than on proxy.
The Chamber has the right to amend and divide the articles and amendments proposed.
It is forbidden to present petitions in person to the Chamber.
The Chamber has the right to refer to the members of the Government the petitions which are addressed to it. - The members of the Government shall provide explanations of their contents, whenever the Chamber demands it.
The Chamber does not concern itself with any petition having individual interests for its object unless it is aimed at redressing grievances resulting from illegal acts of the Government or the authorities or unless the decision to intervene lies [within] the competence of the Chamber.
No action, neither civil, nor penal, can be directed against a Deputy as a result of the opinion or vote cast by him in the exercise of his functions.
With the exception of the cases foreseen by Article 68, the Deputies may be prosecuted in penal matter[s], for the duration of the session.
Likewise, the arrest of a Deputy for the duration of the Session is, except in the case of flagrante delicto, submitted to the previous authorization of the Chamber
The authorization of the Chamber is not required for the execution of penalties, even those which deprive freedom, pronounced against a Deputy.
The Chamber determines in it regulations the manner in which it exercises its attributions.
The sittings of the Chamber are held in the place of the residence of the administration of the Grand Duchy.
The Grand Duke can dissolve the Chamber.
New elections are held at the latest within three months of the dissolution.
The members of the Chamber of Deputies shall receive, in addition to their traveling expenses, an indemnity, of which the amount and conditions are determined by the law.
The Grand Duke regulates the organization of his Government, which is comprised of three members at least.
In the exercise of the power attributed to him by Articles 36 and 37, paragraph 4 of the Constitution, the Grand Duke can, in the cases that he determines, entrust [charger] the members of his Government to adopt measures of execution.
The Grand Duke appoints and dismisses the members of the Government.
Members of the Government are responsible.
There is no intermediate authority between the members of the Government and the Grand Duke.
Members of the Government have access to the Chamber and must be heard when they demand it.
The Chamber may demand their presence.
In no case may an oral or written order of the Grand Duke relieve a member of the Government of his responsibility.
The Chamber has the right to accuse members of the Government. - A law shall determine the cases of responsibility, the penalties to be inflicted and the mode of procedure, either on the accusation admitted by the Chamber or the action brought by the injured parties.
The Grand Duke may only pardon a condemned member of the Government at the request [demande] of the Chamber.
The Council of State is called to give its opinion on the bills and proposals of law and [of] amendments, which have been and are proposed, as well as on all other questions which have been referred to it by the Government or by the laws. On the articles voted by the Chamber conforming to Article 65, it gives its opinion within the time period specified by the law.
The organization of the Council of State and the manner of the exercise of its attributions are regulated by the law.
Disputes which have civil rights as their object are exclusively of the resort of the tribunals.
Disputes which are political rights as their object are of the resort of the tribunals, save the exceptions established by the law.
A tribunal or a jurisdiction in contentious matters may only be established by virtue of a law. No extraordinary commissions or tribunals may be created under whatever denomination that may be.
The organization of the Superior Court of Justice is provided for by a law.
The hearings of the tribunals are public, unless such publicity is a threat to order and morality, and in which case, the tribunal so declares by a judgment.
Every judgment is substantiated. It is pronounced in public hearing.
The justices of the peace and the judges of the tribunals are directly appointed by the Grand Duke. The councillors of the Court and presidents and vice presidents of the tribunals of the districts [arrondissement] are appointed by the Grand Duke on the advice of the Superior Court of Justice.
The justices of the peace, judges of the tribunals of the districts and the councillors of the Superior Court are irremovable. - Any of them may only be deprived of his post or suspended by a judgment. The transfer of one of these judges can only take place by a new appointment and with his consent.
However, in the event of infirmity or misconduct, he may be suspended, dismissed or transferred, following the conditions determined by the law.
The salaries of members of the judicial order are specified by the law.
Save in the cases of exception specified by the law, no judge may accept salaried functions of the Government, unless he exercises them without compensation, without prejudice however to the cases of incompatibility determined by the law.
Particular laws regulate the organization of the military tribunals, their attributions, the rights and obligations of the members of these tribunals and the duration of their functions.
The law also regulates the organization of the jurisdictions [in matters] of labor and the jurisdiction in matters of social security, their attributions, the mode of appointment of their members and the duration of their functions.
The courts and tribunals only apply general and local orders and regulations when these comply with the laws. - The Superior Court of Justice settles the disputes of attribution following the mode determined by the law.
All which concerns the armed force is regulated by the law.
The organization and the attributions of the forces of [public] order is the subject of a law.
A Civil Guard, whose organization is regulated by the law, may be formed.
A tax for the benefit of the State may only be established by a law. - No loan charged to the State may be contracted without the assent of the Chamber. - No real property of the State may be alienated if the alienation is not authorized by a special law. However, a general law may determine a threshold below which a special authorization of the Chamber is not required. - Any acquisition by the State of significant [importante] real property, any realization to the benefit of the State of a large infrastructure project or of a [project] of considerable construction [bdtiment], any significant financial commitment of the State must be authorized by a special law. A general law determines the thresholds above which this authorization is required. - Any charge [which] affects [grevant] the budget of the State for more than one fiscal period may only be established by a special law. - Any charge [or] any communal tax [imposition] may only be established with the consent of the Communal Council. - The law determines the exceptions which experience has demonstrated are necessary concerning communal taxes.
The taxes for the benefit of the State are voted annually. - The laws which establish them only have force for one year, if they are not renewed.
No privilege may be established in matters of tax. Exemption or reduction may only be established by a law.
Save in the cases formally excepted by the law, payment may be required of citizens or of public establishments, [and] only under the title of taxes for the benefit of the State or of the commune.
Any pension, affective payment [traitment d'attente] [or] any gratuity charged to the treasury may only be granted in accordance with the law.
Each year, the Chamber adopts [arrte] the law of accounts and votes the budget. All revenues and expenditures of the State must be shown in the budget and in the accounts.
The salaries and pensions of the ministers of the religions are a charge to the State and regulated by the law.
The wording of the acts of civil status and the maintaining of registers are exclusively within the attributions of the communal authorities.
The law may create public establishments, endowed with civil personality, of which it determines the organization and object. Within the limits of their specialty, the power to adopt regulations may be granted to them by the law which may furthermore submit this regulation to the approval of the supervising authority or likewise in view of annulment or suspension in case of illegality, without prejudice to the judicial or administrative tribunals.
The City of Luxembourg is the capital of the Grand Duchy and the seat of Government. The seat of the Government may only be transferred temporarily for grave reasons.
"I swear fidelity to the Grand Duke, obedience to the Constitution and to the laws of the State. I promise to fulfill my functions with integrity, exactitude and impartiality."
Every foreigner in the territory of the Grand Duchy enjoys the protection granted to persons and to property, save the exceptions established by the law.
A law, a decree or a regulation of general or communal administration is only obligatory after having been published in the form determined by the law.
No provisions of the Constitution may be suspended.
Any revision of the Constitution must be adopted in the same terms by the Chamber of Deputies in two successive votes, separated by an interval of at least three months.
No revision will be adopted if it has not obtained at least two-thirds of the votes of the members of the Chamber; votes by proxy will not be admitted.
The text adopted in the first reading by the Chamber of Deputies is submitted to a referendum, which substitutes for the second vote of the Chamber, if in the two months following the first vote demand for it is made[,] either by more than a quarter of the members of the Chamber, or by twenty-five thousand electors inscribed in the electoral lists for legislative elections. The revision can only be adopted if it receives the majority of the valid suffrage expressed. The law governs the modalities of organization of the referendum.
During a regency, no change can be made to the Constitution concerning the constitutional prerogatives of the Grand Duke, his status as well as the order of succession.
Until provided for by a law, the Chamber of Deputies shall have the discretionary power to accuse a member of the Government, and the Superior Court of Justice, in general assembly, shall judge him, characterizing the offense and determining the penalty. Nevertheless, the penalty may not exceed that of confinement, without prejudice to cases expressly provided for by the penal laws.
From the day the Constitution is executory, all the laws, all the decrees, orders, regulations and other acts which are contrary to it are abrogated.
The provisions of the Constitution are not an obstacle to the approval of the Statute of the International Criminal Court, done at Rome on 17 July 1998, and to the execution of the obligations that result under the conditions specified by the said Statute.
Pending the conclusion of the conventions referred to in Article 22, the current provisions concerning the religions remain in force.
Until the promulgation of the laws and regulations referred to in the Constitution the laws and regulations in force continue to be applicable.